THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 297 That is the fundamental question with which we see Rousseau wrestling in the Emile and in the contemporaneous Letter on Education in the New Heldise. His own answer is incomplete and has to be pieced together from various sources, but so far as it goes it is both new and sound. The educator, he says in effect, must begin by studying the child. He must take account first of all of the generic characters of mankind—those characters which are variously manifested in the dispositions or inclinations. Then there are the differences of sex: " Once it is demonstrated that men and women are not and ought not to be constituted alike in character or temperament, it follows that they ought not to have the same education."* Next, the differences of age : " Each age and condition of life has a perfection and maturity of its own."f And finally, the differences of individuality : " Each mind has a form of its own in accordance with which it must be directed; and for the success of the teacher's efforts it is important that it should be directed in accordance with this form and no other." t He has least to say with regard to individuality, and yet the problems it raises are always before him. " One nature needs wings, another shackles,'* he points out in the New H£lotse.§ " One has to be flattered, another repressed. One man is made to carry human knowledge to its furthest point, another may find the ability to read a dangerous power." To the problems raised by such differences he has two answers. The first is given implicitly in the Emile, where the education of the boy Emile is the special care of a tutor who devotes the best part of his life to the task. This tutor has complete charge of the boy and makes it his business to exercise perfect control of all the circumstances likely to determine his mind and character. But though such an exceptional arrangement does provide ample safeguards for individuality, it is no true solution of the practical problem; and Rousseau recognizes that himself. His second and better answer is given in the New H6lo%se. There he depicts two boys and a girl growing up in the well-regulated liberty of an ideal household under the eyes of an enlightened father and mother, who take care not to interfere with the lessons of experience. The implication, which Rousseau makes plain enough even in the Emile, by stating that " the proper nurse is the mother and the * Effril*, v, 25. f Md.t u, 304. J Ibid** II, 69. § v, 3.